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善良無需考證

巴西著名導演沃爾特·塞勒斯正在籌備自己的新電影,一天,正為此一籌莫展的沃爾特到城市西郊辦事,在火車站前的廣場上遇到了一個十多歲的擦鞋小男孩。小男孩問道:「先生,您需要擦鞋嗎?」沃爾特低頭看了看自己腳上剛剛擦過不久的皮鞋,搖搖頭拒絕了。

就在沃爾特轉身走出十幾步之際,忽然見到那個小男孩紅著臉追上來,眼中滿是祈求:「先生,我整整一天都沒吃東西了,您能借給我幾個錢嗎?我從明天開始就多多努力擦鞋,保證一周後把錢還給您!」

沃爾特看著面前這個衣衫襤褸、面黃肌瘦的小男孩,不由的動了惻隱之心,就掏出幾枚硬幣遞到小男孩手裡。小男孩感激的道了一聲「謝謝」後,一溜煙就跑得沒影了。沃爾特搖了搖頭,因為這樣的街頭小騙子他已經見得太多了。

半個月後,忙著籌備新電影的沃爾特早已將借錢給小男孩的事忘得一乾二淨了。不料,就在他又一次經過西郊火車站時,突然看到一個瘦小的身影離的老遠就向他招手喊道:「先生,請等一等!」等到對方滿頭大汗的跑過來把幾枚硬幣交給他時,沃爾特才認出這是上次向他借錢的那個擦鞋小男孩。小男孩氣喘吁吁的說:「先生,我在這裡等您很久了,今天總算把錢還給您了!」沃爾特握著自己手裡被汗水濡濕的硬幣,心頭陡然升起一股暖流。

沃爾特不由地仔細端詳起面前的小男孩,突然,他發現這個小男孩其實很符合自己腦海中構想的主人公形象。於是,沃爾特把幾枚硬幣塞到小男孩衣兜里:「這點零錢是我誠心誠意給你的,就不用還了。」沃爾特對他神秘的一笑,又說道,「明天你到市中心的影業公司導演辦公室來找我,我會給你一個大大的驚喜。」

第二天一大早,門衛就告訴沃爾特,說外面來了一大群孩子。他詫異的出去一看,就見那個小男孩興奮的跑過來,一臉天真的說:「先生,這些孩子都是同我一樣沒有父母的流浪兒,聽說你有驚喜給我,我就把他們都帶來了,因為,我知道他們也渴望有驚喜!」

沃爾特真沒想到這樣一個窮困流浪的孩子竟會有一顆如此善良的心!既然人都帶來了,沃爾特就讓工作人員對這些孩子進行了觀察和篩選,最後,工作人員在這些孩子中,找出了幾個比小男孩更機靈,更適合出演劇本中的小主人公的人選。

但最終,沃爾特還是選擇只把小男孩留下來。他在錄用合同的免試原因一欄中只寫了這樣幾個字:你的善良,無需考核!

因為他覺得:在自己面臨困境的時候,卻依然能把本屬於自己一個人的希望,無私的分享給別人的人,最值得擁有人生的驚喜!而這個小男孩就是後來巴西家喻戶曉的明星文尼西斯·狄·奧利維拉。 在沃爾特的執導下,文尼西斯在劇中成功地扮演了小男孩主人公的角色,而電影《中央車站》也大獲好評,並獲得了1999年的奧斯卡金像獎。

若干年後,已成為一家影視文化公司董事長的文尼西斯寫了一本自傳,叫《我的演藝生涯》。

在書的扉頁上面,是沃爾特的親筆題字:你的善良,無需考核。下面還有一行小字,則是他對文尼西斯的評價:「是善良,曾經讓他把機遇讓給別的孩子;同樣也是善良,讓人生的機遇不曾錯過他!」。

「欣賞一個人,始於顏值,敬於才華,合於性格,久於善良,終於人 品。
人生就是這樣,和漂亮的人在一起,會越來越美;和陽光的人在一起,心裡就不會晦暗;和快樂的人在一起,嘴角就常帶微笑;和聰明的人在一起,做事就機敏;和大方的人在一起, 處事就不小氣;和睿智的人在一起,遇事就不迷茫。
借人之智,修善自己;學最好的別人,做最好的自己!」

(English story from Washington Post, different from Chinese one, good for reading )

ONE morning in late 1996, the Brazilian director Walter Salles was waiting for a flight in Rio de Janeiro when he was approached by a 9-year-old shoeshine boy. At the time, Mr. Salles was preparing to shoot his third feature film, ''Central Station,'' the tale of an older woman and a boy who meet at Rio's train station and then strike out on a journey into the hinterlands to find the boy's father.

Fernanda Montenegro, Brazil's doyenne of stage and film, had agreed to play the woman, Dora, but Mr. Salles had still not found anyone to play Josue, the child. ''In one full year we had tested 1,500 boys,'' he said. ''I was getting desperate.''

The shoeshine boy, Vinicius de Oliveira, had other concerns, however. ''It was raining that day, and I wasn't making any money,'' he recalled, speaking through an interpreter at the Toronto Film Festival. ''I couldn't shine Walter's shoes because he was wearing sneakers, but I asked if he could lend me some money so I could eat and I would pay him back. He told me, 'I'll give you the money to buy a sandwich, but you also have to do a screen test for me.' ''

When Vinicius finally showed up for the test, he brought his friends with him, ''the entire fraternity of shoeshine boys from the airport,'' Mr. Salles said, laughing. He chose Vinicius for the role because, he said, ''I was looking for a boy who knew what the battle for survival was, but who had not lost his innocence in doing so.

''I cannot even say that I found Vinicius. It's more honest to say that he found me.''

The story of how ''Central Station'' was made, over a vast territory, with a small budget and crew and many novice collaborators, embodies the theme of the film itself: the triumph of steadfastness over adversity. Both a portrait of present day Brazil and a two-person drama, ''Central Station,'' which opened on Friday, manages to be intimate and epic, local and universal.

''One day I woke up with this idea of a film about a quest,'' said Mr. Salles, 42. ''It was the search for a father that a kid had never met, the search of an old woman for the feelings that she had lost and the search somehow for a certain country that was not the country I was living in anymore.''

Mr. Salles's work is informed by the search for identity, both on a personal and national level, a concern stemming largely from his own background. Born in Brazil to a banking family, he spent part of his childhood in France and the United States where his father was a diplomat. When he returned to Brazil, he eventually decided to become a documentary filmmaker.

This combination of an outsider's perspective and an insider's understanding has shaped Mr. Salles's work. ''I think the fact that I have been raised in several different countries has given me both a sense of continuous exile and a desire to understand my own culture,'' he said recently in New York, speaking in fluent English.

The dark-haired Mr. Salles, who has kind eyes and a ready laugh, is both warm and disarmingly modest. ''When you come from a privileged part of Brazilian society, as I do, you have to opt either to be part of that culture of indifference or to understand what the country really is,'' he said.

His movie comes at a time when Brazilian cinema is once again flourishing. After a period of forced inactivity in the early 1990's, when the Government of President Fernando Collor de Mello froze individual bank accounts and shut down the state film agency, film production has risen to approximately 40 films a year.

But the reality of everyday life that ''Central Station'' depicts is harsh. In the film, Dora is a bitter woman who makes her living in Rio's Central Station, writing letters for illiterate people. She takes their money but discards the letters. One day she writes a letter for a mother and her little boy (Vinicius de Oliveira). When the mother is killed in an accident outside the station, Dora tries to sell the boy for adoption. Realizing that she has instead sold him to a sinister organization in which he may come to harm, she rescues the boy and the two set out on a bus trip to find his father.

For Mr. Salles, Dora is the epitome of modern Brazil, with its ''culture of cynicism.'' But as Dora grudgingly develops a bond with the boy ''she begins to understand that the boy's route and the boy's ordeal are comparable to her own,'' he said.

The growing friendship between these two -- more comradely than mother-son -- is, for Mr. Salles, a symbol of a Brazil where solidarity and compassion may be buried but are still present. His film is not utopian, but it celebrates the diversity both of the land and of what Mr. Salles calls the ''human geography'' that Dora and Josue encounter on their journey.

When the screenplay of ''Central Station,'' based on an idea of Mr. Salles's and written by Joao Emanuel Carneiro and Marcos Bernstein, won a prize sponsored by the Sundance Institute and the Japan Broadcasting Corporation in early 1996, it attracted the attention of Arthur Cohn, the Swiss independent producer who has won five Academy Awards (one for Vittorio De Sica's ''Garden of the Finzi-Continis'').

LIKE De Sica, Walter's approach is humanistic,'' said Mr. Cohn. ''De Sica taught me that there were four main points to making significant films. One was to cast actors who are right for the part, not just those with big names. Two was to shoot the film on authentic locations. Three was that sex, violence or special effects are not necessary unless they're intrinsic to the story.'' He smiled. ''Four was not to listen to everybody's advice, but to follow your intuition.''

With Mr. Cohn as producer, and with his principal cast finally in place Mr. Salles started the collaborative rehearsal process he had favored with his second film, ''Foreign Land'' (1995). ''It's a work almost like that of theater,'' said Ms. Montenegro, 69, in New York. ''For two months we sat around a table, reading and discussing the script.''

The long preparation allowed Mr. Salles to move quickly and to improvise once filming began in November 1996. During the filming of Ms. Montenegro's scenes in the railroad station, several passersby took her to be an actual letter-writer and asked her to write letters for them, scenes that made it into the movie. In following the journey of Dora and Josue, Mr. Salles had to move his team from Rio to remote regions of northeast Brazil, to the states of Bahia and Pernambuco. ''The transport from one place to another sometimes took three days on dirt roads,'' said Mr. Salles. ''It was like being in a circus for several weeks.''

Nor were conditions easy, due to the extreme heat and the poverty of the villages where Mr. Salles was filming. Yet the welcome that his crew received allowed the unforeseen to occur, as in a scene where Dora and Josue come upon a religious pilgrimage in full swing. Mr. Salles had the actual pilgrims recreate this candlelight vigil.

Mr. Salles is a largely self-taught filmmaker. After studying history and economics in college in Brazil, he attended only one year of film school, at the University of Southern California, before returning to Rio in 1981 to make documentaries.

His move toward feature films was gradual. In 1989, he directed ''Exposure,'' starring Peter Coyote and based on the Brazilian writer Rubem Fonseca's novel ''High Art.'' ''Foreign Land,'' about two young Brazilians bereft in Lisbon, delved into the themes of physical and spiritual voyage and of loss. ''Sometimes I am asked why I was so pessimistic in 'Foreign Land' and why I open the possibility of optimism with 'Central Station,' '' Mr. Salles said. ''But the films portray different moments of Brazilian reality.''

He paused. ''When you see films today, it seems that most of the characters endure a situation they cannot control,'' he said. ''Here I wanted to show that tough as life may be, it can be possible to transcend this initial adversity.''

That hopeful message may explain the widespread appeal of ''Central Station.'' The film has been a big success in Brazil, where it has been seen by more than a million viewers, but it also had positive audience response at the Sundance, Toronto and Berlin film festivals. ''During the screenings we held in Toronto, I saw tears rolling down people's faces,'' said Ramiro Puerta, the programmer for Latin American and Spanish films in Toronto.

As the film opens around the world, Mr. Salles's own life these days resembles a road movie. But even in the wake of ''Central Station's'' success, he has no plans to relocate from Rio -- where he lives in a forested area outside the city with his six large dogs -- or to change his thematic pursuits.

With Daniela Thomas, a co-director of ''Foreign Land,'' Mr. Salles has written and directed a short feature called ''Midnight,'' and he will work again with Arthur Cohn on two films still being written.

Embarking on these projects, Mr. Salles seems to want to explore further the need for connection -- whether between individuals or between peoples -- that ''Central Station'' embraces. '' 'Central Station' is much more about brotherhood than it is about a specific country,'' he said. ''Even as an artist, you need to know that what you do is part of a larger whole. You need to be part of a dialogue.'' He smiled. ''In Brazil, we have this expression: 'One bird alone does not announce the spring.' ''

有位太太請了一位油漆匠到家裡粉刷牆壁,


油漆匠走進門,看到她的丈夫雙目失明,頓時流露出憐憫的目光;

可是男主人卻非常開朗樂觀,所以油漆匠在這家工作的幾天裡,他們談得很投契,油漆匠也從來沒有提及男主人的生理缺憾。

油漆匠粉刷完牆壁,取出賬單遞給那位太太,那位太太接過來一看,發現比談妥的價錢打了一個很大的折扣。

她不解地問油漆匠:「你為甚麼少算了這麼多?」

油漆匠回答:「跟你先生在一起覺得很快樂,他使我覺得自己的境況還不算最壞,所以減去一部分,算是我對他的一點謝意,【因為他讓我把工作看得不會太苦!】

油漆匠對她丈夫的推崇,使這位太太流下了眼淚,

因為,這位慷慨的油漆匠只有一隻手!

【人生可能無法改變,但人生觀可以改變】

【環境雖然無法改變,但心境可以改變】

雖然無法調整環境來完全適應自己的生活,

【但可以調整態度來適應環境,而態度就會決定命運!】

【知足的人看到的都是窮苦人家的苦】

【不知足的人看到都是富貴人家的樂】

【最大的幸福不是得到,而是感謝】

【最好的財富不是金錢,而是健康】

【最多的自由不是擁有,而是放下!】

朋友,其實我們真的很幸福,

能多給予別人一些,自己也能得到更多的快樂;

我們可能無法為這個世界做什麼偉大的事情,

但是【我們可以帶著偉大的愛,多做很多小事!】

She is like the lady down the road
Or just the woman up the street
Like any mother you may know
To me, she is the one who had it planned
To lead us all to Wonderland
She always wanted us to go
And she said
Don?t ever be lonely
Remember, I'll always care
Wherever you may be
Remember I will be there
And like another lady that we know
She has a smile so bright and sweet
And hair as white as driven snow
Though life is never easy day to day
She has a very special way
To make us smile when we are low
And she says
Don't ever be lonely
Remember, I'll always care
Wherever you may be
Remember I will be there
Don't ever be lonely
Remember, I will be there
I will be there
I will be there

 

普天率土,只有伯多祿一人被選,他在萬民的蒙召中高居首位,而領導使徒和教會的一切教父。雖然在天主的子民中有許多祭司和牧者,却都由伯多祿管轄,而主要地都由基督所管轄。親愛的教友們,天主竟屑於恩賜伯多祿分享祂自己的偉大而奇妙的權力。祂也願教會其他的領袖們與伯多祿享有同樣的恩惠,凡祂未曾拒絕賜與其他人的,都是藉伯多祿而賜給他們。

可是當主要求使徒們表示意見時,首先承認主的,便是在使徒地位上的第一人,當他說:「祢是默西亞,永生天主之子」時,耶穌回答他說:「約納的兒子西滿,你是有福的,因為不是血和肉啟示了你,而是我在天之父。」意即你是有福的,因為我父教導了你,世俗之見沒有欺騙了你,而是上天的啟示教誨了你;不是血肉,而是那身為祂獨生子的指示給你的。

耶穌說:「我對你說」:意指,正如我的父把我的天主性顯示給你,同樣地,我讓你知道你的崇高地位:「你是伯多祿。」意思是說:我是不可動搖的磐石,我是「屋角的基石,我使這兩塊石頭合而為一;我是基石,除我以外,沒有別的基石;可是你也是磐石,因為你因我的能力得以堅強有力,而使你也能分享我的權力。

「在這磐石上,我要建立我的教會,陰間的門不能戰勝它。」祂是在說:我要在這堅固的基礎上建立一座永久的宮殿。我的教會要高聳入天,將在這堅強的信德上矗立。

這種信德的表明,陰間的門不能攻破,死亡的鎖鍊也不能束縛;因為這聲音就是生命的聲音。它把承認信德的人送到天堂上,同樣,也把不承認信德的人拋到地獄裏去。

所以,基督對最有福的伯多祿說:「我要將天國的鑰匙交給你:凡你在地上所束縛的,在天上也要被束縛;凡你在地上所釋放的,在天上也要被釋放。」

誠然,基督也把這個權柄交給其他使徒們,並且由這命令所產生的制度,把這權柄傳授給教會的所有首長。但祂把那應傳於眾人的權柄託付給一個人,不是沒有理由的。祂特別委託給伯多祿,因為祂願意伯多祿成為教會所有首長的典型

建立聖伯鐸(伯多祿)宗座

一、歷史源流

「建立聖伯鐸宗座」的慶節歷史相當複雜,近代的研究才使人較清楚此慶節的源始與意義。此紀念日早於第四世紀中葉就已存在,可能源自古代羅馬一種追念亡者的禮俗。每年年終時(年初為三月一日),自二月十三日到二月二十二日為已亡親友舉行紀念禮;行禮時,空置一個座位,表示為某固定亡者保留。由於聖伯鐸殉道的實際日期並不為羅馬教友確知,因而定在二月二十二日,以追念他的逝世日。紀念禮時,也為他保留一個空座位(Cathedra)。以後,教友團體才把此座位解釋為:主教在教導教友時所坐的座位,並且把此慶節視為紀念伯鐸就職管理羅馬教會的日子。

古代時,高盧地區於一月十八日紀念伯鐸首席特權(見以上所述),羅馬教會以後也接納了此慶節,並在第七世紀時,視此日為伯鐸在羅馬建立宗座日,而二月二十二日則為伯鐸在安提約基(Antioch)建立宗座日。據歷史考證,伯鐸曾於安提約基居住七年之久。最初這兩慶節只是地方性的,直到一五五八年時,教宗保祿四世才把此兩日定為普世教會應遵行的慶節。1960年,教宗若望二十三世時修訂禮規,刪除了一月十八日的,而只保留了二月二十二日的慶節。所修訂的禮儀年曆也予以保留,稱之為「聖伯鐸建立宗座」,定為慶日。

此慶節的主要目的在尊敬伯鐸的宗座權威,強調他在教會中的地位職責,一如在本日彌撒經文中所表達的:「主對伯鐸說:『我已經為你祈禱,使你不致失去信德,等你回頭以後,要堅強你弟兄們的信心』。」

二、聖伯鐸宗徒介紹

伯鐸是耶穌十二位宗徒中最重要的一位,是宗徒之長,教會的最高首領。他原名西滿,是貝特塞達人,與兄長安德肋以捕魚為生。福音及宗徒大事錄中關於伯多祿生平的記載達一百六十一次之多,遠超過其他宗徒。耶穌第一次見伯多祿時,就給了他一個外號——「刻法」(磐石)(若一42),從最初就同若望及雅各伯成了耶穌三位愛徒中的一位,成了耶穌的全能、光榮及受辱的見證人。

伯多祿生平最大的轉機應是在耶穌由伯多祿的船上向群眾講完道理之後,叫他下網捕魚。伯多祿雖已徒勞無獲地工作了一整夜,仍照耶穌所說,投網下海,那知竟捕得滿網大魚,不得不招呼捕魚的同伴,載伯德的兩個兒子,雅各伯和若望前來幫忙。伯多祿見此奇跡,驚慌失措地跪下說:「主,請你離開我,因為我是罪人。」耶穌卻對他說:「不要害怕,從今以後,你要作捕人的漁夫。」果然,伯多祿捨棄了一切,跟隨了耶穌(路五4-11)。

百姓和門徒在聽到耶穌講論聖體的道理後,心中不服,滿口怨言,各自東走西散,離耶穌而去。此時耶穌問宗徒們:「難道你們也願意走嗎?」伯多祿挺身而出,代言答道:「主!惟有你有永生的話,我們去投奔誰呢?我們相信而且知道,你是天主的聖者。」(若六60-69)之後在斐理伯的凱撒勒雅境內,伯多祿代表其他門徒承認耶穌是「默西亞永生天主子」(瑪十六16, 19)。耶穌見時機成熟,遂鄭重地將教會首長的權位預許給他:「約納的兒子西滿……你是伯多祿(磐石),在這磐石上,我要建立我的教會,陰間的間決不能戰勝她。我要將天國的鑰匙交給你:凡你在地上所束縛的,在天上也要束縛;凡你在地上所釋放的,在天上也要釋放。」(瑪十六17-19)

伯多祿在耶穌受難時曾三次背主,因此當耶穌復活後,第一個獲得顯現的宗徒就是伯多祿(路二十四34),聽耶穌的指示,帶領其他宗徒回加里肋亞,重做漁夫。有一天,天色仍在朦朧之際,耶穌站在加里肋亞湖邊。若望立即認出耶穌,伯多祿滿腔熱火,迫不急待地跳下水去,游至岸上問候耶穌。就在這天早上,耶穌三次問伯多祿「愛不愛我」,伯多祿鑒於以往背主的愧疚,心中早已有所警惕,謙虛地回答:「主,是的,禰知道我愛禰。」耶穌見伯多祿的心理狀態已做好準備,於是將之前預許給祂的教會中最高的職權,正式委託給他。

伯多祿大約在64-67年,尼祿執政迫害教會時,倒懸十字架而死。教友解下他的遺體後,葬於現今的梵蒂岡丘嶺上,亦即現伯多祿大殿座落的地方。

三、教宗的職務與世界的關係

伯多祿是教會第一任教宗,這項傳統在天主公教內延續至今。教宗也身兼羅馬主教。1995年,教宗若望保祿二世即於羅馬聖伯多祿大殿,發布《願他們合而為一》通諭,文中論及羅馬主教身負合一之職,雖經歷個人的軟弱與無助,然在這個職位上,他完全服務天主充慈悲的計劃,要把陷於罪惡與邪惡中的世界,在天主的慈悲中,轉化人心趨向合一,使人人進入祂的共融中。

這種合一的服務是根植於天主慈悲的行動上,在世界主教團裡,託付給了他們當中的一位。這一位從聖神手中接受這項任務,不是在人之上行使任務,如同外邦人的統治者和他們的大人物所做的一樣,而是帶領他們到寧靜的牧場上。教宗的職務是天主眾僕之僕,猶如主耶穌,教會的元首親自說:「我在你們中間,像似一個服務人的。」(路廿二27),祂也曾說:「你們知道:在外邦人中,有尊為首領的主宰他們,有大臣管轄他們;但你們中間卻不可這樣:誰若願意在你們中間成為大的,就當作你們的僕役;誰若願意在你們中間為首,就當作眾人的奴僕,因為人子來不是來受服事,而是來服事人,並交出自己的性命,為大眾作贖價。」(谷十42-45)

聖奧斯曾指出基督就是唯一的牧人,在祂的至一中眾人合而為一。他繼續熱心勸說:「因此,願所有的牧人在至一的善牧中合而為一;願他們讓唯一牧人的聲音能被聽到;願群羊聽到這個聲音而跟隨他們的牧人,不是這個牧人或是那個牧人,而是唯一的牧人;在祂內,願眾人只聽到祂唯一的聲音,而不是嘮嘮叨叨的雜音……願羊群所聽到的聲音是免於所有分裂,從所有異端中得到淨化的聲音。」

羅馬主教在所有牧人團中的使命,正在於看顧(Episkopeina),如同一個哨兵,因此,藉著牧人們的努力,基督牧人的真實的聲音,可以在所有的個別教會中被聽到。以這個方式,在每一個託付給些牧人的個別教會中,這至一、至聖、至公和宗徒傳下來的教會,就呈現出來了。所有的教會都在完全和可見的共融之中,因為所有的牧人都與伯多祿共融,而因此也都聯合在基督內。

如果沒有權力和權威,這樣的一種職務將成為虛幻不實。因此,羅馬主教(亦是教宗)必須以權力和權威,來保證所有教會的共融。為這個理由,他是合一的首要僕人。這一項首席權行使在不同的層面上,包括注意聖言的傳承、禮儀和聖事的舉行、教會的使命、風紀,和基督徒的生活。伯多祿繼承人的職責,就是要喚起注意教會公益的需求,是否有人企圖為個人的利益而忽視它。他有義務勸誡、警告,有時候,當某些與信仰合一互不相容的見解四處流傳時,他也要宣布、澄清。當環?需要時,他就以全體與他共融的牧人的名義說話。他也能——在梵蒂岡第一屆大公會議所清楚訂下的明確條件下——以宗座名義(EX Cathedral)宣布某些教義是屬於信仰的寶庫。以此對真理的見證,聖伯鐸的繼承人為合一服務。

以下是 ‘Still Alice’ - “我想念我自己” 電影原著作者Lisa Genova 去年在Vancouver Ted Talks 關於老人癡呆症的演講。她是哈佛大學腦神經科學的博士。

保持身體和大腦的健康活躍非常重要。

日本女作家兼商界聞人曾野綾子在八十多歲時,出書 (熟年的才情/天下雜誌出版)論述「如何怡然自得、樂觀奮進的度過晚年?」

她和夫婿三浦朱門同為日本優雅老化的典範。她先不論社福或立法,直接向自己和年長者提出六項挑戰,從「要求自己」做起;
此處以英文字母歸納為wiffar,方便記憶:

1. 工作 (work):

「人應工作死方休」雖然富裕,她沒雇用傭人,家事如買菜、做飯、清潔、洗衣、種花,凡事自己動手做。其實這符合「非運動式活動療法 \ Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)」的學理和主張。在沖繩島長壽村的住民一生工作,沒有65歲退休的概念。

2.獨立(independent)

許多老人習慣依賴,成為「幫我族」,或倚老賣老。例如在公車上,長者要學習不期望別人讓位。自己執行該做又能做的事,少麻煩別人。

3. 通達 (flexible):「恰如其分」的生活,立志不依賴配偶或兒女照顧。通情達理,沒有錢,就不要「打腫臉充胖子」。若已身無分文,也要有「死無葬身之地」的覺悟。

4.信仰(faith):
曾野綾子四十歲時開始勤讀聖經,她說上帝的話就像是一付度數正確的眼鏡,可以把人生看得清清楚楚。離開人世,也有個好去處。

5.獨處 (alone):
孤獨是必然的,不當做負面或自憐,反而是感受人生寧靜、喜悅的大好機會。不但可以發現自己,也可以嘗試合情合理的的冒險。

6.面對 (realistic):
老化、孤獨、疾病、死亡是人生的一部分,學習開朗而不愁煩的面對現實,從中找尋樂趣或安慰。活著時要將身後事安排妥當,不要給別人添麻煩。

寫得真好!看了真是很有感觸!~~~讚啦!
俄國著名心理學家巴甫洛夫說:“快樂是養生的唯一秘訣。”。快樂與健康是天然相連的,進入老年後如何讓自己更快樂呢?

1. 如果你已經 50-70歲了,就該明白:你早已經不是超人,不要整日疲於奔命,應該活得從容。比如飯應一口一口吃,事要一點一點做。光從容還是不夠的,適當的時候還是要秀一下自己,讓平淡的日子亮起來。

2. 如果你已經 50-70歲了,就該明白:生活品質的優劣,完全取決於自己的心態。天天大魚大肉、山珍海味,不見得就是生活品質高。只有獲得精神上的滿足,才是品質生活。

3. 如果你已經 50-70歲了,就該明白:親情的疏離是切膚的傷痛。淡一些、諒一些、忍一些,會使我們的心寬一些、和一些、暖一些。

4. 如果你已經 50-70歲了,就該明白:選擇朋友很重要。和樂觀、志同c道合的人交朋友,你也會變得樂觀開朗。

5. 如果你已經 50-70歲了,就該明白:學習還是很有必要的。活到老,學到老。關注與自己職業和愛好相關的新知識。大膽嘗試感興趣的事,如滑雪、衝浪、跳傘等。

6. 如果你已經 50-70歲了,就該明白:靠誰都不如靠自己。有些問題是需要自己去解決的。要相信自己,直面挑戰,視困境為機遇,學會創造性地解決問題。

7. 如果你已經 50-70歲了,就該明白:地位和榮譽只不過是一個杯子,而您的修養和品性才是你杯中的東西。夜光杯中未必盛的就是葡萄美酒,也可能是一杯濁水。粗瓷盞裡未見得就是白開水,很可能悶的是一盞極品龍井。

8. 如果你已經 50-70歲了,就該明白:心存感恩的人過得更快樂。對於任何祝福,無論大小都應懂得感恩。擁有的家庭、工作和朋友,都應知道感激,不妨親口告訴他們,生活中因為有了他們,你才感到快樂。

9. 如果你已經 50-70歲了,就該明白:笑一笑十年少, 笑口常開沒煩惱。對自己對生活都不要過分嚴肅。試著發現身邊的點滴樂趣,適時地幽默一下,讓生活充滿笑聲。

10. 如果你已經 50-70歲了,就該明白:有個照顧你的人,是最大的幸福,沒有照顧你的人,就自己照顧自己。要保證休息、運動和健康飲食,經常以有趣、刺激的方式練習大腦,活躍思維。新的時代需要新的養老理念

潯陽江頭夜送客,楓葉荻花秋瑟瑟。
主人下馬客在船,舉酒欲飲無管絃。
醉不成歡慘將別,別時茫茫江浸月。
忽聞水上琵琶聲,主人忘歸客不發。
尋聲暗問彈者誰?琵琶聲停欲語遲。
移船相近邀相見,添酒回燈重開宴。
千呼萬喚始出來,猶抱琵琶半遮面。
轉軸撥絃三兩聲,未成曲調先有情。
弦弦掩抑聲聲思,似訴平生不得志。(不得志 一作:意)
低眉信手續續彈,說盡心中無限事。
輕攏慢捻抹復挑,初爲《霓裳》後《六幺》(六幺 一作:綠腰)。
大弦嘈嘈如急雨,小弦切切如私語。
嘈嘈切切錯雜彈,大珠小珠落玉盤。
間關鶯語花底滑,幽咽泉流冰下難。
冰泉冷澀弦凝絕,凝絕不通聲暫歇。(暫歇 一作:漸歇)
別有幽愁暗恨生,此時無聲勝有聲。
銀瓶乍破水漿迸,鐵騎突出刀槍鳴。
曲終收撥當心畫,四弦一聲如裂帛。
東船西舫悄無言,唯見江心秋月白。
沉吟放撥插弦中,整頓衣裳起斂容。
自言本是京城女,家在蝦蟆陵下住。
十三學得琵琶成,名屬教坊第一部。
曲罷曾教善才服,妝成每被秋娘妒。
五陵年少爭纏頭,一曲紅綃不知數。
鈿頭銀篦擊節碎,血色羅裙翻酒污。(銀篦 一作:雲)
今年歡笑復明年,秋月春風等閒度。
弟走從軍阿姨死,暮去朝來顏色故。
門前冷落鞍馬稀,老大嫁作商人婦。
商人重利輕別離,前月浮樑買茶去。
去來江口守空船,繞船月明江水寒。
夜深忽夢少年事,夢啼妝淚紅闌干。
我聞琵琶已嘆息,又聞此語重唧唧。
同是天涯淪落人,相逢何必曾相識!
我從去年辭帝京,謫居臥病潯陽城。
潯陽地僻無音樂,終歲不聞絲竹聲。
住近湓江地低溼,黃蘆苦竹繞宅生。
其間旦暮聞何物?杜鵑啼血猿哀鳴。
春江花朝秋月夜,往往取酒還獨傾。
豈無山歌與村笛?嘔啞嘲哳難爲聽。
今夜聞君琵琶語,如聽仙樂耳暫明。
莫辭更坐彈一曲,爲君翻作《琵琶行》。
感我此言良久立,卻坐促弦弦轉急。
悽悽不似向前聲,滿座重聞皆掩泣。
座中泣下誰最多?江州司馬青衫溼。
朝代:唐代
作者:白居易
唐憲宗元和十年,我被貶爲九江郡司馬。第二年秋季的一天,送客到湓浦口,夜裏聽到船上有人彈琵琶。聽那聲音,錚錚鏗鏗有京都流行的聲韻。探問這個人,原來是長安的歌女,曾經向穆、曹兩位琵琶大師學藝。後來年紀大了,紅顏退盡,嫁給商人爲妻。於是命人擺酒叫她暢快地彈幾曲。她彈完後,有些悶悶不樂的樣子,自己說起了少年時歡樂之事,而今漂泊沉淪,形容憔悴,在江湖之間輾轉流浪。我離京調外任職兩年來,隨遇而安,自得其樂,而今被這個人的話所感觸,這天夜裏纔有被降職的感覺。於是撰寫一首長詩贈送給她,共六百一十六字,題爲《琵琶行》。


大師常用比喻或故事來啟發弟子,他們聽得津津有味。有時却感到不滿,因他們渴望更深的真理。
大師對他們的不滿,充耳不聞,僅提醒他們:「孩子們,你們還不了解:人類與真理間最短的距離就是故事。」
他又曾說過:「不要低估了故事的作用。俗語說得好:『一分錢的蠟燭可以找到一個遺失的金幣』;一個簡單的故事常會道出最深的真理。」
MYTHS
The Master gave his teaching in parables and stories which his disciples listened to
with pleasure — and occasional frustration, for they longed for something deeper.
The Master was unmoved. To all their objections he would say, “You have yet to
understand, my dears, that the shortest distance between a human being and Truth is a
story.”
Another time he said. “Do not despise the story. A lost gold coin is found by means of
a penny candle; the deepest truth is found by means of a simple story.”